There are various types of cranes used in civil engineering construction works. A crane is a piece of heavy machinery that is a tower or platform that is equipped with cables and pulleys. They are used to lift and lower materials. The most common use of cranes is in the construction industry and heavy equipment manufacturing.
Different Types of Cranes
The types of cranes used in construction are generally temporary structures and will be either fixed to the ground or mounted on a vehicle. The operator can control the crane from inside a cab that moves with the crane, by radio controls or by a push button pendant control station.
Crane operators have to be able to fully operate the crane. Some operators are trained only on one specific type of crane, while others will learn how to operate two to three. A crane operator is paid well for their knowledge and ability to operate the heavy machine.
Different types of cranes are used under different circumstances and environment. Here are 7 crane types that are used commonly depending on the project, work objective and environment.
1. Telescopic Crane
A telescopic crane offers a boom that has a number of tubes that are fitted inside each other. Then hydraulic mechanisms extend or retract the tubes to length or shorten the boom.
2. Mobile Cranes
This is the most basic type of crane and consists of a steel truss or telescopic boom mounted on some kind of mobile platform. This platform could be wheeled, a rail or even a cat truck. The boom is hinged at the bottom and can be raised or lowered by cables or hydraulic cylinders.
3. Truck Mounted Crane
These types of cranes are mounted on a rubber tire truck and provide excellent mobility. The outriggers will extend vertically or horizontally and are used to stabilize and level the crane when it is hoisting a load of materials.
4. Tower Crane
A tower crane is considered to be a modern form of a balance crane. When fixed to the ground, this type of crane will often give the best of height and lifting capabilities. They are also used when constructing tall buildings.
5. Rough Terrain Crane
The crane is mounted on an undercarriage that has four rubber tires and is designed to be use off road. The outriggers can extend vertically and horizontally to stabilize and level the crane when it is lifting a large load. These types of cranes are single engine meaning that the same engine is used to power the undercarriage and the crane.
6. Overhead Crane
These types of cranes are also known as suspended cranes. They are generally used in a factory and some are able to lift very heavy loads. The hoist of the crane is set on a trolley that will move in one direction along a beam, sometimes two beams. They move at angles to the direction along the elevated or ground level tracks. The tracks are usually mounted along the side of an assembly area.
7. Loader Crane
This is a hydraulically powered crane that has an articulated arm that is fitted to a trailer. A loader crane is used to load equipment onto a trailer. The crane can be folded into numerous sections and will fit into small spaces when not in use. The crane can be easily transported because of its capabilities to be folded.
Civil engineering uses many different types of cranes during a project. They can be used to move heavy equipment or machinery. Many types of cranes can quickly and easily move equipment into trenches or down steep hills. They can move large pipes from one place to another. Cranes are beneficial in the construction process for buildings, bridges and overpasses. They are an indispensable asset to the construction and engineering fields.
Cranes have become a common sight on any work sight that involves heavy lifting or the lifting on materials onto higher areas. So using proper type of crane is important in construction works.
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